|copyright||See Copyright and License.|
|index terms||pair: virtual mapping; design|
.intro: This the design of the VM interface. The VM interface provides a simple, low-level, operating-system independent interface to address-space. Each call to VMCreate() reserves (from the operating-system) a single contiguous range of addresses, and returns a VMStruct thereafter used to manage this address-space. The VM interface has separate implementations for each platform that supports it (at least conceptually, in practice some of them may be the same). The VM module provides a mechanism to reserve large (relative to the amount of RAM) amounts of address space, and functions to map (back with RAM) and unmap portions of this address space.
.motivation: The VM is used by the VM Arena Class. It provides the basic substrate to provide sparse address maps. Sparse address maps have at least two uses: to encode information into the address of an object which is used in tracing (the Zone Test) to speed things up; to avoid fragmentation at the segment level and above (since the amount of address space reserved is large compared to the RAM, the hope is that there will also be enough address space somewhere to fit any particular segment in).
.def.reserve: The "reserve" operation: Exclusively reserve a portion of the virtual address space without arranging RAM or backing store for the virtual addresses. The intention is that no other component in the process will make use of the reserved virtual addresses, but in practice this may entail assuming a certain amount of cooperation. When reserving address space, the requester simply asks for a particular size, not a particular range of virtual addresses. Accessing (read/write/execute) reserved addresses is illegal unless those addresses have been mapped.
.def.map: The "map" operation: Arrange that a specified portion of the virtual address space is mapped from the swap, effectively allocating RAM and/or swap space for a particular range of addresses. If successful, accessing the addresses is now legal. Only reserved addresses should be mapped.
.def.unmap: The "unmap" operation: The inverse of the map operation. Arrange that a specified portion of the virtual address space is no longer mapped, effectively freeing up the RAM and swap space that was in use. Accessing the addresses is now illegal. The addresses return to the reserved state.
.def.vm: "VM" stands for Virtual Memory. Various meanings: A processor architecture's virtual space and structure; The generic idea / interface / implementation of the MPS VM module; The C structure (struct VMStruct) used to encapsulate the functionality of the MPS VM module; An instance of such a structure.
.def.vm.mps: In the MPS, a "VM" is a VMStruct, providing access to the single contiguous range of address-space that was reserved (from the operating-system) when VMCreate() was called.
Res VMCreate(VM *VMReturn, Size size)
.if.create: VMCreate() is responsible both for allocating a VMStruct and for reserving an amount of virtual address space. A VM is created and a pointer to it is returned in the return parameter VMReturn. This VM has at least size bytes of virtual memory reserved. If there's not enough space to allocate the VM, ResMEMORY is returned. If there's not enough address space to reserve a block of the given size, ResRESOURCE is returned. The reserved virtual memory can be mapped and unmapped using VMMap() and VMUnmap().
void VMDestroy(VM vm)
.if.destroy: A VM is destroyed by calling VMDestroy(). Any address space that was mapped through this VM is unmapped.
Lots of interfaces are missing here.
.testing: It is important to test that a VM implementation will work in extreme cases.
.testing.large: It must be able to reserve a large address space. Clients will want multi-GB spaces, more than that OSs will allow. If they ask for too much, mps_arena_create() (and hence VMCreate()) must fail in a predictable way.
.testing.larger: It must be possible to allocate in a large space; sometimes commiting will fail, because there's not enough space to replace the "reserve" mapping. See request.epcore.160201 for details.
.testing.lots: It must be possible to have lots of mappings. The OS must either combine adjacent mappings or have lots of space in the kernel tables. See request.epcore.160117 for ideas on how to test this.
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